James Turrell was born in 1943 in Los Angeles and began to seriously make art when he enrolled in the University of California, Irvine for a masters in art. Early on in his career, Turrell was heavily influenced by the Light and Space group which included members such as Robert Irwin, Mary Corse, and Doug Wheeler. In 1969, Turrell began to experiment with drawings and other works on paper, to create his Sky Drawings . He has long stated that his only medium is pure light and is famous for his ‘skyspaces’ which are chambers with an opening in the ceiling to allow one to view the sky. He is also known for his mega project, the Roden Crater , which he has been working on since 1977 and has yet to open to the public. Turrell has received several major retrospectives, including at the Los Angeles County of Art and the Solomon R. Guggenheim museum in New York. In 1974, the artist was awarded the Guggenheim Fellowship, and in 1991, he was honored with the Chevalier des Arts et des Lettres in France.